The How & Why



COW and GOAT :)

two of the most popular forms of dairy and I LOVE them both!



Milk has a high PROTEIN content of 80% CASEIN and the remainder known as WHEY.

The FAT in milk is a complex lipid found in whole milk as TINY droplets that you can see under a microscope.

It also contains CARBOHYDRATES, the main being lactose (milk sugar – the least sweet sugar)


ONE OF THE MOST COMMON QUESTIONS I GET IS: Why are people intolerant to milk?

Well, we all have an enzyme that is produced in our small intestine known as LACTASE,

This little enzyme breaks the lactose down into two simple sugars,

but, SOME people only have a SMALLER amount of lactase, which means they can only handle small amounts of dairy before feeling uncomfortable, this is known as being INTOLERANT as the lactose that is not digested sits in the intestine and is broken down by microorganisms producing gas, cramping and diarrhea.



Always keep milk covered, protected from light and REFRIGERATED below 5°C…

If the container is open your milk can ABSORD other food ODOURS,

If it is WARM it promotes BACTERIAL growth

And if it is exposed to too much LIGHT an OFF flavour will develop.


Nerd Alert:

Whole milk:

milk that contains no less than 3.35% milk fat & no less than 8.25% milk-solids-not-fat (protein & lactose)

Fat-reduced milk:

this refers to low fat 2%, low fat 1% and skim milk.



You will notice that most people will heat milk over hot water in a DOUBLE BOILER and continuously stir – this is to prevent SCORCHING…

When we heat milk the whey proteins become unable to dissolve and the lactalbumin forms a solid mass and the amount increase as the temperature of the milk increases – this collects at the bottom of the pot, known as scorching.


Don’t you hate it when milk boils over?



This is because a thin skin forms on the surface of heated milk causing the milk to bubble & boil over – when we heat milk the temperature increases and a tough scum forms that is unable to dissolve…

to PREVENTING SCUM simply place a lid over the pot, add water or float a piece of butter on the top.



…HIGH FAT but delicious!

Cream is the high-fat liquid product that is separated from whole milk.



When we WHIP cream a FOAM is formed – a foam is when we have bubbles of gas spread throughout in a liquid, but to keep it there we also need a foaming agent:


the LIQUID – water in the cream

the GAS BUBBLES –air beaten in

the FOAMING AGENT – protein found in the cream


cream should always be whipped straight from the refrigerator, it is also good to have a bowl and beater that is chilled so that we increase clumping of fat particles. The fat content of cream should be higher than 30% for good whipping!



We all love a bit of sweetness,

But sugar will DECREASE the VOLUME and STIFFNESS of your foam, so for best results add it after your cream is stiff – and if you add it just before serving use a powdered sugar so that it can dissolve quickly.



Megan Potgieter

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